In-Text Citations - APA

Why we include parenthetical / in-text citations

Researchers include brief parenthetical citations in their writing to acknowledge references to other people’s work. Generally, APA parenthetical citations include the last name of the author and year of publication. Page numbers are also included when citing a direct quote.

If some of this information is included in the body of the sentence, exclude it from the parenthetical citation. In-text citations typically appear at the end of the sentence, between the last word and the period.

For additional help formatting your paper, visit the College of DuPage Writing Assistance Area in SRC 2102.

Parenthetical citation without author’s name in the text


Harlem had many artists and musicians in the late 1920s (Belafonte, 2008).

Parenthetical citation when author is mentioned in the text


According to Belafonte, Harlem was full of artists and musicians in the late 1920s (2008).

Parenthetical citations with multiple authors

Works with two authors

Include both names, separated by an ampersand (&).


Rallying to restore sanity was a revolutionary undertaking (Stewart & Colbert, 2010).

Works with three to five authors

• Include all names in the first in-text parenthetical citation, separated by commas and then an ampersand (&).
• For all subsequent in-text parenthetical citations, include only the first author, followed by “et al.” and publication year if it is the first citation in a paragraph.

First in-text parenthetical citation


Rallying to restore sanity was a revolutionary undertaking (Stewart, Colbert, & Oliver, 2010).

All subsequent in-text parenthetical citations


The event resulted in thousands of participants flocking to the National Mall in support of the cause (Stewart et al. 2010).

Works with six or more authors

Include only the last name of the first author, followed by “et al.” and publication year in all parenthetical citations.


The study did not come to any definitive conclusions (Rothschild et al., 2013).

Citing sources without an author

If a work has no author, include the first few words of the bibliography entry (in many cases, the title) and the year.
Use double quotations around the titles of articles, chapters and/or websites.


Statistics confirm that the trend is rising (“New Data,” 2013).

*Note: Unlike in your reference list, parenthetical citations of articles, chapters and/or website should have all major words capitalized.

Italicize the titles of periodicals, books, brochures or reports


The report includes some bleak results (Information Illiteracy in Academia, 2009).

Citing part of a work

When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page number or section identifier, such as chapters, tables or equations. Direct quotes should always have page numbers.


One of the most memorable quotes is when he says, “You are going to live a good and long life filled with great and terrible moments that you cannot even imagine yet!” to Augustus (Green, 2012, p. 272).

If the source does not include page numbers (such as online sources), you can reference specific parts of the work by referencing the paragraph number (if given) with the abbreviation “para. xx”


He quickly learned that pandas were not considered good pets (Chan, 2011, para. 3).

Section or heading and the number of the paragraph in which the information is found. For lengthy headings, use the first few words of the title in the parenthetical citation


The sample population included both red and giant pandas (Chan, 2011, Methodology section, para. 1).

Citing groups or corporate authors

Corporations, government agencies and associations can be considered the author of a source when no specific author is given.

Write out the full name of the group in all parenthetical citations:


The May 2011 study focused on percentages of tax money that goes to imprisonment over education funding (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 2011).

However, you may abbreviate the group name if the group’s name is lengthy and it is a commonly recognized abbreviation in all subsequent parenthetical citations.


The report found that over a half billion of taxpayer dollars went to imprison residents “from 24 of New York City’s approximately 200 neighborhoods” (NAACP, 2011, pp. 2).

Citing classical works

For classical sources, such as ancient Greek works, cite the year of the translation or version used. Precede this information with “trans.” or “version,” respectively.


(Homer, trans. 1998).

When citing specific content from these sources, include the paragraph/line numbers that are used in classical works. This information is consistent across versions/editions, and is the easiest way to locate direct quotes from classical works.


The Bible extols the virtues of love; “Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud” (1 Cor. 13:4 New International Version).

Note: Remember, you do not need to create formal citations in your reference list for classical works.

Citing and formatting block quotes

When directly quoting information from sources in your writing, you may need to format it differently depending on how many words are used.

If a quote runs on for more than 40 words:

• Start the direct quotation on a new line
• Indent the text roughly half an inch from the left margin
• If there are multiple paragraphs in the quotation, indent them an extra half inch
• Remove any quotation marks
• Double-space the text
• Add the parenthetical citation after the final sentence

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Citing Sources: APA

Below are examples of 6th Edition APA citations that are most commonly used by students at the College of DuPage. For additional examples and rules, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., 2010)

View the APA Citing and Formatting tutorial.
  1. Print Sources
  2. Electronic Sources
  3. Multimedia Sources

Print Sources


Author(s) or Editor(s) (last name, first initials). (Year of publication). Title of book. City of publication: Publisher.

Hill, F. J., & Awde, N. (2003). A history of the Islamic world. New York, NY: Hippocrene Books.

Articles/Chapters from an Edited Book

Author(s) of article or chapter. (Year of publication). Title of article or chapter. In Name of editors (Ed.), Title of book (Page numbers). City of publication: Publisher.

Stern, K. (2000). Toni Morrison's beauty formula. In M. C. Connor (Ed.), The aesthetics of Toni Morrison: Speaking the unspeakable (pp. 77-91). Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.

Journal Articles

Author(s) of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. doi:#

Fearon, J. D., & Laitin, D. D. (2003). Ethnicity, insurgency, and civil war. American Political Science Review, 97(01), 75. doi: 10.1017/S0003055403000534

Tip: If you do not find a DOI (digital object identifier) for a print journal article, simply leave it out of your citation. (APA Manual, pp. 188–192)

Magazine Articles

Author(s) of article. (Full Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers.

Fineman, H. (2002, March 4). Back from the bat cave: Cheney emerges to test-drive war president's coattails. Newsweek, 139(9), 22-23.

Newspaper Articles

Author(s) of article. (Full Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, Page numbers.

Schwartz, J. (1999, July 9). U.S. cites race gap in use of internet; Clinton bemoans 'digital divide.' The Washington Post, p. A1.

Articles from an Encyclopedia

Author(s) of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. In Name of editor(s) (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia (Edition, Vol. number, Page numbers). City of publication: Publisher.

Wienclaw, R.A. (2008). Bullying. In L.J. Fundukian & J. Wilson (Eds.), Gale encyclopedia of mental health (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 183-188). Detroit, MI: Thompson Gale.

Government Publications

Author(s) of publication. (Year of publication). Title of publication. (Report number if available). City of publication: Publisher.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Commission on the Evaluation of Pain. (1986). Report of the Commission on the Evaluation of Pain. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

HRAF Book Excerpts

Author(s) of book. (Year of publication). Title of book (Edition). City of publication: Publisher. Retrieved from the Human Relations Area Files Culture Code microfiche collection.

Krige, E. J. (1965). The social system of the Zulus (2nd ed). Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter. Retrieved from the Human Relations Area Files FX20 microfiche collection.

Electronic Sources


Author(s) (last name, first initials). (Year of publication). Title of work [E-reader version if available]. DOI number or Retrieved from URL of ebook homepage

Hubbard, M.R. (2003). Statistical quality control for the food industry. [Adobe Digital Editions version]. Retrieved from http://www.springer.com/life+sci/food+science/book/978-0-306-47728-7

Tip: If the book was read through an online library (e.g., Google Books, ebrary, NetLibrary) and not on an e-reader device, omit the bracketed information from the reference (APA Manual, p. 203)

Journal Articles with DOI Assigned

Author(s) of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. DOI number

Feldt, R. (2008). Development of a brief measure of college stress: The college student stress scale. Psychological Reports, 102, 855-860. doi:10.2466/PR0.102.3.855-860

Tip: Include the Issue number only when the journal begins every issue at page 1 (APA Manual, p. 198).

Journal Articles without DOI Assigned

Author(s) of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. Retrieved from URL of journal homepage

Klages, M.A. & Clark, J.E. (2009). New worlds of errors and expectations: Basic writers and digital assumptions. Journal of Basic Writing, 28(1), 32-49. Retrieved from http://www.wac.colostate.edu/jbw/

Tip: If the article does not have a DOI or a journal homepage, simply provide the database or website retrieval information. Follow the Encyclopedia example below (APA Manual, p. 199)

Magazine Articles

Author(s) of article. (Full Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume number(Issue number), Page number(s). Retrieved from URL of magazine home page

Romano, A. (2006, April 24). Walking a new beat: Surfing MySpace.com helps cops crack the case. Newsweek, 147(17), 48. Retrieved from http://www.newsweek.com/
APA Manual p. 200

Newspaper Articles

Author(s) of article. (Full Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from URL of newspaper home page

Barbaro, M. (2006, March 7). Wal-Mart enlists bloggers in its public relations campaign. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/
APA Manual pp. 200-201

Encyclopedia Articles from a Database

Author(s) of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. In Name of editor(s) (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia (Edition). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession Number if available).

Boughton, B. (2006). Bone density test. In D. Olendorf, C. Jeryan, & K. Boyden (Eds.), Gale encyclopedia of medicine (3rd ed.). Retrieved from Health Reference Center-Academic database. (Accession No. A149657222).

Tip: Only include database information if the encyclopedia article does not have a DOI or encyclopedia homepage (APA Manual, p. 205).

Entire Website
When referencing an entire website, simply include the URL in the text of the paper. Example:

The Art Institute of Chicago website (http://www.artic.edu/aic/) includes great visuals.
Article on a Website

Author(s) of article. (Date Published, Copyright Date or Last Revision). Title of document. Name of Website. Retrieved from URL of website

Hellerman, C. (n.d.). Scientists hope work with poison gas can be a lifesaver. CNN. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com
APA Manual pp. 198-202

Government and Academic Publications Online

Author(s) or Editor(s). (Date of publication or last revision). Title of document or web site (Report number if available). Retrieved from Name of Agency or Department website (if different than the author): URL of website

National Center for O*NET Development. (2010). Child, family, and school social workers (O*Net Report No. 21-1021.00). Retrieved from O*Net Online website: http://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/21-1021.00
APA Manual pp. 205-206

Company Profile from a Business Database

Author(s) of Profile. (Date of Publication). Name of company. In Title of Database. Retrieved from URL of profile

Schein, A. (2012). Starbucks Corporation. In Hoover's. Retrieved from

Profile from a Career Database

Title of profile. (Date of Publication). In Title of Database. Retrieved from URL of profile

Elementary school teachers. (2012). In Illinois Career Information System. Retrieved from http://ilcis.intocareers.org/info2.aspx?FileID=Occ&FileNum=100309&TopicNum=0


Organization That Made the Standard. (year). Title of the standard (Standard No. 1234). Retrieved from URL

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers ASHRAE (2012). Standard practice for inspection and maintenance of commercial building HVAC systems (Standard No.180-2012). Retrieved from https//subscriptions.techstreet.com/products/625582


Organization That Made the Code. (year). Title of the code (Code name and number). Retrieved from URL

International Code Council. (2015). Stop work order: Authority (International Building Code 115.1). Retrieved from https://codes.iccsafe.org/public/document/IBC2015/chapter-1-scope-and-administration


Audio (Podcast)

Writer or Producer. (Function). (Date produced or posted). Title of podcast or audio recording [Type of Work]. Retrieved from URL of website

AHRQ. (Producer). (2008, December 18). Healthcare 411 News Series from AHRQ
[Podcast]. Retrieved from http://healthcare411.ahrq.gov/featureAudio.aspx?id=891
APA Manual p. 210

Images (Online)

Author or Artist if available. (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of Work]. Retrieved from URL of website

Netter, F. (2005). Heart [Electronic illustration]. Retrieved from
APA Manual pp. 209-210

Images (No Author, No Title, No Date)

[Description of image]. (n.d.). [Type of Work]. Retrieved from URL of website

[Untitled image of a chest]. (n.d.). [X-ray photograph]. Retrieved from
APA Manual pp. 209-210

Videos (Film)

Director and/or Producer. (Function). (Year of release). Title of video [Medium consulted]. Available from URL of distributor website

Grazer, B., Bevan, T., & Fellner, B. (Producers) & Howard, R. (Director & Producer). (2009). Frost/Nixon [DVD]. Available from http://frostnixon.net/

In Theaters

Director and/or Producer. (Function). (Year of release). Title of film [Type of work]. Country of origin: Name of Studio.

Kuenne, K.(Director & Producer). (2008). Dear Zachary: A letter to a son about his father [Motion picture]. United States: MSNBC Films.

Tip: If you are unable to find the distributor's website, simply include "Country of origin: Name of studio (APA Manual, pp. 209-210).

Videos (Television Episode)

Writer and/or Director. (Function). (Year of broadcast). Title of Episode [Type of Work]. In Name of Producer (Function), Title of Television series [Medium consulted]. Available from URL of distributor website

Whittlesey, R. (Writer and Director). (2005). How safe are we? [Television series episode]. In T. Nguyen & R. Whittlesey (Producers), Rx for survival: A global health challenge [DVD]. Available from http://shop.wgbh.org/


Writer and/or Director. (Function). (Year of broadcast). Title of Episode [Type of Work]. In Name of Producer (Function), Title of Television series. City of production: Name of Studio.

Nestle, K. (Director). (2009). Heart Failure [Television series episode]. In F.K. Willis (Producer), Second Opinion. Rochester, NY: WXXI Public Broadcasting.
APA Manual p.210

Videos (Online)

Producer. (Function if available). (Date produced or posted). Title of video [Medium consulted]. Retrieved from URL of website

Carnegie Mellon. (Producer). (2008, February 6). Randy Pausch lecture: Time management . Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oTugjssqOT0
APA Manual pp. 209 & 215


Rightsholder(s) if available. (Date of publication). Title of software (Version number if available). [Description of form]. City of publication: Publisher or Producer.

Lauer, K. (1999). Pathophysiology [Computer software]. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp.
APA Manual pp. 210-211


Citing Sources

Citation styles provide rules for formatting your citations or references. Although there are many different citation styles, those most commonly used by students at College of DuPage are American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA), and Chicago/Turabian. The style you should use is usually determined by the discipline or course in which you are working. Ask your instructor what style is required or recommended.

Citing Sources: Information to Record

Although every citation style is different, there are some standard elements to record:

•    Title (of book or article and journal)
•    Author
•    Publication Date
•    Publisher or source
•    Start and end pages (for articles and book chapters)

For electronic sources such as Web pages, you should record this additional information:

•    The date you accessed the site
•    The digital object identifier (DOI) if there is one
•    The URL (Web address) if there is no DOI

Sample Papers & In-Text Citations

For additional help formatting your paper, visit the College of DuPage Writing Assistance Area in SRC 2102.

From MLA Style Center

  • MLA Sample Paper #1 This paper, on assisted reproductive technology and the family, includes an example of using ellipses when omitting words from a quoted source. For more on ellipses, see the MLA Handbook (1.3.5).
  • MLA Sample Paper #2 This paper, on Jacob Lawrence’s Migration series, shows you how to incorporate figures into your text, style a block quotation, and cite a variety of sources. Read about block quotations in the MLA Handbook (1.3.2–3, 1.3.7).


  • APA Sample Paper #1 This abridged manuscript illustrates the organizational structure characteristic of reports of meta-analyses written in APA Style.
  • APA Sample Paper #2 This sample paper is an example of a one-experiment paper that demonstrates APA Style elements.

Citing Your Sources

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Debra's APA Citation Tips

You are responsible for learning and using the APA style guidelines when formatting your paper and citing your resources. There are many resources available to assist you with APA, so be proactive and seek the help that best fits your needs.

Are you struggling with APA style because you lack the computer (word processing) skills to create margins, annotations, block indents, headings, or double spacing? Check out the short, FREE, highly-visual computer tutorials available from GCFlearnfree.org

  • The site includes computer basics and software tutorials on Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access and OpenOffice.org as well as social media
  • Tutorials on most versions of Office are available
  • Quickly access step-by-step directions, screen shots and short video-clips of how to perform various software functions
  • Remember that your basic formatting questions can be answered by the Library’s Computer Support Print Services staff as well as Reference staff

Think about APA style requirements and gather citation information while you research.Don't wait until the end of the writing process to do your citations. A large amount of student stress arises from having to back track and relocate images and resources in order to acquire citation details. I recommend that you do one or more of the following:

  1. Use the COD Library APA Citing Sources pages: https://cod.libguides.com/citing/apa
    • It contains examples of how to cite images including diagnostic images
    • An annotated bibliography may be required as a part of your coursework
    • If required, annotated bibliographies should be double-spaced
    • Content of annotations varies dependent upon assignment and instructor preference. For example, many COD instructors require that in 3-5 sentences you explain two things in your annotated bibliography: 1.) the reasons why you think the source is credible (see Debra's evaluating sources guide) and 2.) how this resource fits into your final project (it has has overview information, it provides treatment options, etc). APA does not specify the content of annotations so be sure to check with your instructor about what should be included.
    • The formatting of annotations can vary. Some guides suggest that annotations should be block indented five spaces, other guides recommend block indenting five spaces plus two (for a total of seven spaces). NoodleBib annotations use the seven space block indent format. Check with your instructor for preferred formatting.
  2. Participate in a free APA workshop sponsored by the Library for hands-on practice and assistance: http://library.codlibrary.org/sos
  3. Get a writing handbook or an APA style guide like these examples (remember that there are many more resources available in the COD Library or online):
    • Online Writing Lab (OWL) from Purdue Universitysmall yellow star.jpg

      • Little Brown Handbook
        • Ready Reference, General: PE1112 .L58  2010 
      • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6TH ed.)
        • General & Reference: BF76.7 .P83 2010
  4. Make an appointment with the Learning Commons' Writing, Reading, Speech Assistance (WRSA) area. Check out their APA paper template and writing guides

  5. Utilize the citation tool, NoodleTools (linked from the COD Library Citing Sources page). NoodleTools provides integrated online tools for note-taking, outlining, citation, document archiving/annotation, and collaborative research and writing.
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