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How to Create an Annotated Bibliography

WHAT IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY?
An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.

ANNOTATIONS VS. ABSTRACTS
Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Annotations are descriptive and critical; they may describe the author's point of view, authority, or clarity and appropriateness of expression.

THE PROCESS
Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research.

First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.

Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style.

Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the author, (b) comment on the intended audience, (c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or (d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.

CHOOSING THE CORRECT FORMAT FOR THE CITATIONS
Check with your instructor to find out which style is preferred for your class. Online citation guides for both the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) styles are linked from the Library's Citation Management page.

SAMPLE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRY FOR A JOURNAL ARTICLE
The following example uses APA style (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, 2010) for the journal citation:

Waite, L. J., Goldschneider, F. K., & Witsberger, C. (1986). Nonfamily living and the erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review, 51, 541-554.

The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

This example uses MLA style (MLA Handbook, 8th edition, 2016) for the journal citation:

Waite, Linda J., et al. "Nonfamily Living and the Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations Among Young Adults." American Sociological Review, vol. 51, no. 4, 1986, pp. 541-554.

The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.



"How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography" by
Olin Library Reference
Research & Learning Services
Cornell University Library
Ithaca, NY, USA
is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

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Formatting or Fetishism? What do we want from source citing anyway?

“Has an element of fetishism perhaps crept into what was once a necessary academic practice?” This is the first sentence in the preface to the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook, published this past spring.

The new edition of the MLA Handbook acknowledges the confusion and futility associated with attempts to provide a definitive citation format for each and every source that could possibly be used in academic writing. In order to cite a book, one had to first identify what kind of book: Print book? Audiobook? E-book? E-book read on a Kindle? Downloaded as a PDF? Downloaded as a PDF and then printed and bound in collection?

Recognizing that no handbook can anticipate new formats and platforms for publishing information, the MLA has created a format-agnostic approach to documentation meant to replace the “forbidding level of detail” that had turned the Handbook into “a reference work… rather than a guide that taught the principles underlying documentation” (MLA Handbook, xi).

There are many stylistic changes between an MLA 7 citation and an MLA 8 citation, however, the role of the citation remains the same - “enabling readers to participate fully in the conversations between writers and their sources” (MLA Handbook, xii). With this in mind, we ask you to reflect for a moment on your own source citation requirements. When it comes to the rules that govern academic style, has as an element of fetishism crept into your own thinking about citations?

The introduction to the MLA Handbook recognizes the importance of rules in documenting sources, but suggests that our use of MLA be guided by three principles:

  1. Cite simple traits shared by most works.
  2. Remember that there is often more than one correct way to document a source.
  3. Make your documentation useful to readers.

As writing handbooks, citation management software, and Library databases make the transition from one version of MLA style to the next, we hope that COD instructors will keep these principles in mind when requiring students to cite their sources - whether MLA, APA, Chicago or another style. Depending on whether a student has access to MLA 7 or MLA 8, a citation may include a URL, or it may not. A citation may read “edited by” or “Ed.” A citation may indicate the day a source was last accessed, or it may not. Perhaps these differences shouldn’t matter much in the college classroom.

For, if we accept that the purpose of a citation is to be useful to readers, then we must accept that variations in citation formatting do not undermine that purpose.

So, how should we, as an academic community, help our students both comprehend the conventions of scholarly communication and manage the challenges of college writing and research?

The COD Librarians offer these suggestions:

  • Be explicit in both your style and source documentation expectations. Do you want students to include a URL for all online sources regardless of whether a DOI is available? Do you expect to see a “last accessed” date included in Web site citations? Tell your students this.
  • Consider grading your students on the utility of their citations rather than their exactitude. A number of studies have shown that an over-emphasis on proper citation may actually be hurting the quality of college writing. Students spend a disproportionate amount of time agonizing over the “correct” way to format a citation when compared to the actual time spent reading and understanding the same sources. We can help lessen student research anxiety by de-emphasizing our focus on “perfect” citations.
  • Address plagiarism concerns via alternative methods. Librarians and scholars believe that our fixation on citation rules stems from our fear of plagiarism. What strategies can you employ that might reduce intentional and unintentional plagiarism? Your liaison librarian can work with you to craft scaffolded assignments, authentic research experiences and other options.

COD Librarians are your partners in teaching and learning. Let us know how we can help you help your students succeed.

In-Text Citations - APA

Why we include parenthetical / in-text citations

Researchers include brief parenthetical citations in their writing to acknowledge references to other people’s work. Generally, APA parenthetical citations include the last name of the author and year of publication. Page numbers are also included when citing a direct quote.

If some of this information is included in the body of the sentence, exclude it from the parenthetical citation. In-text citations typically appear at the end of the sentence, between the last word and the period.

For additional help formatting your paper, visit the College of DuPage Writing Assistance Area in SRC 2102.

Parenthetical citation without author’s name in the text

Example:

Harlem had many artists and musicians in the late 1920s (Belafonte, 2008).

Parenthetical citation when author is mentioned in the text

Example:

According to Belafonte, Harlem was full of artists and musicians in the late 1920s (2008).

Parenthetical citations with multiple authors

Works with two authors

Include both names, separated by an ampersand (&).

Example:

Rallying to restore sanity was a revolutionary undertaking (Stewart & Colbert, 2010).

Works with three to five authors

• Include all names in the first in-text parenthetical citation, separated by commas and then an ampersand (&).
• For all subsequent in-text parenthetical citations, include only the first author, followed by “et al.” and publication year if it is the first citation in a paragraph.

First in-text parenthetical citation

Example:

Rallying to restore sanity was a revolutionary undertaking (Stewart, Colbert, & Oliver, 2010).

All subsequent in-text parenthetical citations

Example:

The event resulted in thousands of participants flocking to the National Mall in support of the cause (Stewart et al. 2010).

Works with six or more authors

Include only the last name of the first author, followed by “et al.” and publication year in all parenthetical citations.

Example:

The study did not come to any definitive conclusions (Rothschild et al., 2013).

Citing sources without an author

If a work has no author, include the first few words of the bibliography entry (in many cases, the title) and the year.
Use double quotations around the titles of articles, chapters and/or websites.

Example:

Statistics confirm that the trend is rising (“New Data,” 2013).

*Note: Unlike in your reference list, parenthetical citations of articles, chapters and/or website should have all major words capitalized.

Italicize the titles of periodicals, books, brochures or reports

Example:

The report includes some bleak results (Information Illiteracy in Academia, 2009).

Citing part of a work

When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page number or section identifier, such as chapters, tables or equations. Direct quotes should always have page numbers.

Example:

One of the most memorable quotes is when he says, “You are going to live a good and long life filled with great and terrible moments that you cannot even imagine yet!” to Augustus (Green, 2012, p. 272).

If the source does not include page numbers (such as online sources), you can reference specific parts of the work by referencing the paragraph number (if given) with the abbreviation “para. xx”

Example:

He quickly learned that pandas were not considered good pets (Chan, 2011, para. 3).

Section or heading and the number of the paragraph in which the information is found. For lengthy headings, use the first few words of the title in the parenthetical citation

Example:

The sample population included both red and giant pandas (Chan, 2011, Methodology section, para. 1).

Citing groups or corporate authors

Corporations, government agencies and associations can be considered the author of a source when no specific author is given.

Write out the full name of the group in all parenthetical citations:

Example:

The May 2011 study focused on percentages of tax money that goes to imprisonment over education funding (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 2011).

However, you may abbreviate the group name if the group’s name is lengthy and it is a commonly recognized abbreviation in all subsequent parenthetical citations.

Example:

The report found that over a half billion of taxpayer dollars went to imprison residents “from 24 of New York City’s approximately 200 neighborhoods” (NAACP, 2011, pp. 2).

Citing classical works

For classical sources, such as ancient Greek works, cite the year of the translation or version used. Precede this information with “trans.” or “version,” respectively.

Example:

(Homer, trans. 1998).

When citing specific content from these sources, include the paragraph/line numbers that are used in classical works. This information is consistent across versions/editions, and is the easiest way to locate direct quotes from classical works.

Example:

The Bible extols the virtues of love; “Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud” (1 Cor. 13:4 New International Version).

Note: Remember, you do not need to create formal citations in your reference list for classical works.

Citing and formatting block quotes

When directly quoting information from sources in your writing, you may need to format it differently depending on how many words are used.

If a quote runs on for more than 40 words:

• Start the direct quotation on a new line
• Indent the text roughly half an inch from the left margin
• If there are multiple paragraphs in the quotation, indent them an extra half inch
• Remove any quotation marks
• Double-space the text
• Add the parenthetical citation after the final sentence


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In-Text Citations - MLA

In-text citations are brief citations found after a direct quote or a paraphrase. They are located in the body of your work. For additional help formatting your paper, visit the College of DuPage Writing Assistance Area in SRC 2102.


In-text citations are placed in parentheses, and have two components:

  • The first word found in the full citation on the Works Cited page (usually the last name of the author)
  • The location of the direct quote or paraphrase (usually a page number)

In-text citations should be placed directly after the direct quote or paraphrase, or in a place that is a natural pause and does not cause the reader to become distracted while reading the body of your work.

Example:

In order to prevent starvation, Watney knew exactly what he needed to do. “My best bet for making calories is potatoes” (Weir 17).

When using the author’s name in the sentence, only include the page number in the parentheses.

Example:

Seuss’s use of words such as, “lurk” and “dank” help students understand the type of character that the Once-ler is (6).


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Content on this guide comes from EasyBib, thanks to a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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MLA Style Basics

Three principles guide the use of MLA Style:

1. Cite simple traits shared by most works

Core Elements
MLA citations are made up of Core Elements in the following order:

1. Author

"Give the author's name as found in the work. Reverse the name for alphabetizing... When a source has two authors, include them in the order in which they are presented. Reverse the first of the names... follow it with a comma and and, and give the second name in normal order."

Example:
Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich. The Crown of Columbus. HarperCollins Publishers, 1999.

--MLA Handbook, p. 21

2. Title of Source.

"Titles are given in the entry in full exactly as they are found in the source, except that capitalization and the punctuation between the main title and a subtitle are standardized...
A title is placed in quotation marks if the source is part of a larger work. A title is italicized...if the source is self-contained."

Example:
Puig, Manuel. Kiss of the Spider Woman. Translated by Thomas Colchie, Vintage Books, 1991.

--MLA Handbook, p. 25

3. Title of Container,

"When the source being documented forms a part of a larger whole, the larger whole can be thought of as a container that holds the source... The title of the container is normally italicized as is followed by a comma, since the information that comes next describes the container...
A container can... be nested in a larger container." Containers within containers could include: a blog published as part of a network of blogs, the back issues of a journal in a database, a book of stories read on Google Books, a television series watched on Netflix.

Example:
"Goldman, Ann. "Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante." The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, 2010, pp. 69-88. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41403188

-- MLA Handbook, p. 30

4. Other Contributors,

"[O]ther people may be credited in the source as contributors. If their participation is important to your research or to the identification of the work, name the other contributors in the entry. Precede each name (or each group of names...) with a description of the role."

Example:
"Hush." Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.

-- MLA Handbook, p. 38

5. Version,

"If the source carries a notation indicating that is is a version of work released in more than one form, identify the version in your entry."

Example:
Newcomb, Horace, editor. Television: The Critical View. 7th ed., Oxford UP, 2007.

-- MLA Handbook, p. 38

6. Number,

"If you consult one volume of a numbered multi-volume set, indicate the volume number." Other sources with numbers include: volumes and issues of journals, issues of comic books, seasons and episodes of a television series.

Example:
Clowes, Daniel. David Boring. Eightball, no. 19, Fantagraphics, 1998.

-- MLA Handbook, p. 39-40

7. Publisher,

"The publisher is the organization primarily responsible for producing the source or making it available to the public." Publishers names can be found on the title page of a book, the copyright notice at the bottom of a Web site, and in production or distribution credit for a movie.

Example:
Harris, Charles "Teenie." Woman in Paisley Shirt behind Counter in Record Store. Teenie Harris Archive. Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, teenie.cmoa.org/interactive/index.html#date08.

-- MLA Handbook, p. 41

8. Publication date,

"When a source carries more than one date, cite the date that is most meaningful or most relevant to your use of the source... Whether to give the year alone or to include a month and day usually depends on your source: write the full date as you find it there."

Example:
Deresiewicz, William. "The Death of the Artist—and the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur." The Atlantic, Jan.-Feb. 2015, pp. 92-97.

-- MLA Handbook, p. 42-3

9. Location.

"How to specify a work's location depends on the medium of publication. In print sources a page number or range of page numbers specifies the location of a text... The location of an online work is commonly indicated by its URL [or DOI]... The location of a television episode in a DVD set is indicated by the disc number."

Example:
Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture, vol. 10, no. 3, May 2000. Project Muse, doi:10.1353/pmc.2000.0021.

-- MLA Handbook, p. 47-49

If an element is not relevant to a source, simply omit it it from your citation.

Practice Template
MLA Style provides a practice template you can use to create entries for your Works Cited list.

2. Remember that there is often more than one correct way to document a source

We cite (document) our sources for several reasons: to support our points by referring to other people's work; to show that we are aware of research on our topics; to show that we have read and understood specific texts; and to give credit when we reference the words and ideas of others.

How we cite sources, however, can depend greatly on our audience. MLA wants us to ask "What is the writer's primary purpose?"

  • Give credit for borrowed material?
    • Generally, college research requires you to document your sources in a Works Cited list. Your citations should include the relevant Core Elements and any other information your instructor requires.
  • Examine distinguishing features of editions or versions of a text?
    • Researchers conducting textual analyses of different versions of a publication will usually need to provide more information in their documentation, with careful attention to core elements such as Version, Publisher and Publication date.
  • Share details of sources as part of a scholarly discourse?
    • Writers wishing to publish their research may be held to a higher standard of documentation than that required by college-level course assignments. Writers should strictly follow the publisher's style guide or the documentation style of their discipline.

3. Documentation should be useful to readers

The most important function of a citation is its ability to communicate information to the reader. Above all, citations should:

  • Demonstrate thoroughness of research
    • Have you read the most important, relevant and up-to-date information on your topic? Where does your contribution fit in?
  • Give credit to original sources
    • Is it clear which ideas are your own and which are from other people's work?
  • Ensure readers can find sources consulted
    • Have you provided enough information to allow a reader to locate the sources you have used?


References
MLA Handbook. 8th ed., The Modern Language Association of America, 2016.
"Works Cited: A Quick Guide." The MLA Style Center, 2016, style.mla.org/works-cited-a-quick-guide/. Accessed 25 Aug. 2016.

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Other Resources

Learning Commons

Writing and Citation Guides

Print Citation Manuals in the Library

Annotated Bibliographies

Oral Citations

Citation Software

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NoodleTools
NoodleTools is an online research management platform that promotes critical thinking and authentic research. Cite, annotate and archive sources easily. Take notes, organize and outline your writing. Collaborate with other students and share with your instructors.

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Citing Sources: APA

Below are examples of 6th Edition APA citations that are most commonly used by students at the College of DuPage. For additional examples and rules, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., 2010)

Watch the recorded webinar APA Citing and Formatting
  1. Print Sources
  2. Electronic Sources
  3. Multimedia Sources

Print Sources

Books

Author(s) or Editor(s) (last name, first initials). (Year of publication). Title of book. City of publication: Publisher.

Hill, F. J., & Awde, N. (2003). A history of the Islamic world. New York, NY: Hippocrene Books.

Articles/Chapters from an Edited Book

Author(s) of article or chapter. (Year of publication). Title of article or chapter. In Name of editors (Ed.), Title of book (Page numbers). City of publication: Publisher.

Stern, K. (2000). Toni Morrison's beauty formula. In M. C. Connor (Ed.), The aesthetics of Toni Morrison: Speaking the unspeakable (pp. 77-91). Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.

Journal Articles

Author(s) of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. doi:#

Fearon, J. D., & Laitin, D. D. (2003). Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War. American Political Science Review, 97(01), 75. doi: 10.1017/S0003055403000534

Tip: If you do not find a DOI (digital object identifier) for a print journal article, simply leave it out of your citation. (APA Manual, pp. 188–192)

Magazine Articles

Author(s) of article. (Full Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers.

Fineman, H. (2002, March 4). Back from the bat cave: Cheney emerges to test-drive war president's coattails. Newsweek, 139(9), 22-23.

Newspaper Articles

Author(s) of article. (Full Date of publication). Title of article. Title of newspaper, Page numbers.

Schwartz, J. (1999, July 9). U.S. cites race gap in use of internet; Clinton bemoans 'digital divide.' The Washington Post, p. A1.

Articles from an Encyclopedia

Author(s) of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. In Name of editor(s) (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia (Edition, Vol. number, Page numbers). City of publication: Publisher.

Wienclaw, R.A. (2008). Bullying. In L.J. Fundukian & J. Wilson (Eds.), Gale encyclopedia of mental health (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 183-188). Detroit, MI: Thompson Gale.

Government Publications

Author(s) of publication. (Year of publication). Title of publication. (Report number if available). City of publication: Publisher.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Commission on the Evaluation of Pain. (1986). Report of the Commission on the Evaluation of Pain. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

HRAF Book Excerpts

Author(s) of book. (Year of publication). Title of book (Edition). City of publication: Publisher. Retrieved from the Human Relations Area Files Culture Code microfiche collection.

Krige, E. J. (1965). The social system of the Zulus (2nd ed). Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter. Retrieved from the Human Relations Area Files FX20 microfiche collection.

Electronic Sources

E-book

Author(s) (last name, first initials). (Year of publication). Title of work [E-reader version if available]. DOI number or Retrieved from URL of ebook homepage

Hubbard, M.R. (2003). Statistical quality control for the food industry. [Adobe Digital Editions version]. Retrieved from http://www.springer.com/life+sci/food+science/book/978-0-306-47728-7

Tip: If the book was read through an online library (e.g., Google Books, ebrary, NetLibrary) and not on an e-reader device, omit the bracketed information from the reference (APA Manual, p. 203)

Journal Articles with DOI Assigned

Author(s) of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. DOI number

Feldt, R. (2008). Development of a brief measure of college stress: The college student stress scale. Psychological Reports, 102, 855-860. doi:10.2466/PR0.102.3.855-860

Tip: Include the Issue number only when the journal begins every issue at page 1 (APA Manual, p. 198).

Journal Articles without DOI Assigned

Author(s) of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. Retrieved from URL of journal homepage

Klages, M.A. & Clark, J.E. (2009). New worlds of errors and expectations: Basic writers and digital assumptions. Journal of Basic Writing, 28(1), 32-49. Retrieved from http://www.wac.colostate.edu/jbw/

Tip: If the article does not have a DOI or a journal homepage, simply provide the database or website retrieval information. Follow the Encyclopedia example below (APA Manual, p. 199)

Magazine Articles

Author(s) of article. (Full Date of publication). Title of article. Title of magazine, Volume number(Issue number), Page number(s). Retrieved from URL of magazine home page

Romano, A. (2006, April 24). Walking a new beat: Surfing MySpace.com helps cops crack the case. Newsweek, 147(17), 48. Retrieved from http://www.newsweek.com/
APA Manual p. 200

Newspaper Articles

Author(s) of article. (Full Date of publication). Title of article. Title of newspaper. Retrieved from URL of newspaper home page

Barbaro, M. (2006, March 7). Wal-Mart enlists bloggers in its public relations campaign. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/
APA Manual pp. 200-201

Encyclopedia Articles from a Database

Author(s) of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. In Name of editor(s) (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia (Edition). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession Number if available).

Boughton, B. (2006). Bone density test. In D. Olendorf, C. Jeryan, & K. Boyden (Eds.), Gale encyclopedia of medicine (3rd ed.). Retrieved from Health Reference Center-Academic database. (Accession No. A149657222).

Tip: Only include database information if the encyclopedia article does not have a DOI or encyclopedia homepage (APA Manual, p. 205).

Websites
Entire Website
When referencing an entire website, simply include the URL in the text of the paper. Example:

The Art Institute of Chicago website (http://www.artic.edu/aic/) includes great visuals.
Article on a Website

Author(s) of article. (Date Published, Copyright Date or Last Revision). Title of document. Name of Website. Retrieved Date accessed online, from URL of website

Hellerman, C. (n.d.). Scientists hope work with poison gas can be a lifesaver. CNN. Retrieved October 15, 2009, from http://www.cnn.com
APA Manual pp. 198-202

Government and Academic Publications Online

Author(s) or Editor(s). (Date of publication or last revision). Title of document or web site (Report number if available). Retrieved from Name of Agency or Department website (if different than the author): URL of website

National Center for O*NET Development. (2010). Child, family, and school social workers (O*Net Report No. 21-1021.00). Retrieved from O*Net Online website: http://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/21-1021.00
APA Manual pp. 205-206

Company Profile from a Business Database

Author(s) of Profile. (Date of Publication). Name of company. In Title of Database. Retrieved from URL of profile

Schein, A. (2012). Starbucks Corporation. In Hoover's. Retrieved from
http://subscriber.hoovers.com/H/company360/overview.html?companyId=15745000000000

Profile from a Career Database

Title of profile. (Date of Publication). In Title of Database. Retrieved from URL of profile

Elementary school teachers. (2012). In Illinois Career Information System. Retrieved from http://ilcis.intocareers.org/info2.aspx?FileID=Occ&FileNum=100309&TopicNum=0

Multimedia

Audio (Podcast)

Writer or Producer. (Function). (Date produced or posted). Title of podcast or audio recording [Type of Work]. Retrieved from URL of website

AHRQ. (Producer). (2008, December 18). Healthcare 411 News Series from AHRQ
[Podcast]. Retrieved from http:/ /healthcare411.ahrq.gov/featureAudio.aspx?id=891
APA Manual p. 210

Images (Online)

Author or Artist if available. (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of Work]. Retrieved from URL of website

Netter, F. (2005). Heart [Electronic illustration]. Retrieved from
http://www.usciences.edu/museum/netter_detail3.htm
APA Manual pp. 209-210

Images (No Author, No Title, No Date)

[Description of image]. (n.d.). [Type of Work]. Retrieved from URL of website

[Untitled image of a chest]. (n.d.). [X-ray photograph]. Retrieved from
http://www..heartfailurematters.org/EN/UnderstandingHeartFailure/Pages/174.aspx
APA Manual pp. 209-210

Videos (Film)
Recording

Director and/or Producer. (Function). (Year of release). Title of video [Medium consulted]. Available from URL of distributor website

Grazer, B., Bevan, T., & Fellner, B. (Producers) & Howard, R. (Director & Producer). (2009). Frost/Nixon [DVD]. Available from http:/ /frostnixon.net/

In Theaters

Director and/or Producer. (Function). (Year of release). Title of film [Type of work]. Country of origin: Name of Studio.

Kuenne, K.(Director & Producer). (2008). Dear Zachary: A letter to a son about his father [Motion picture]. United States: MSNBC Films.

Tip: If you are unable to find the distributor's website, simply include "Country of origin: Name of studio (APA Manual, pp. 209-210).

Videos (Television Episode)
Recording

Writer and/or Director. (Function). (Year of broadcast). Title of Episode [Type of Work]. In Name of Producer (Function), Title of Television series [Medium consulted]. Available from URL of distributor website

Whittlesey, R. (Writer and Director). (2005). How safe are we? [Television series episode]. In T. Nguyen & R. Whittlesey (Producers), Rx for survival: A global health challenge [DVD]. Available from http:/ /shop.wgbh.org/

Broadcast

Writer and/or Director. (Function). (Year of broadcast). Title of Episode [Type of Work]. In Name of Producer (Function), Title of Television series. City of production: Name of Studio.

Nestle, K. (Director). (2009). Heart Failure [Television series episode]. In F.K. Willis (Producer), Second Opinion. Rochester, NY: WXXI Public Broadcasting.
APA Manual p.210

Videos (Online)

Producer. (Function if available). (Date produced or posted). Title of video [Medium consulted]. Retrieved from URL of website

Carnegie Mellon. (Producer). (2008, February 6). Randy Pausch lecture: Time management . Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oTugjssqOT0
APA Manual pp. 209 & 215

Software

Rightsholder(s) if available. (Date of publication). Title of software (Version number if available). [Description of form]. City of publication: Publisher or Producer.

Lauer, K. (1999). Pathophysiology [Computer software]. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp.
APA Manual pp. 210-211

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